The folks who run Medicaid Managed Care Plans often gripe about their enrollees using emergency departments for non-emergency care. And of course, they do, and probably more so than commercially insured enrollees. Most state and federal government regulators and legislators believe that capitation and managed care models for Medicaid can reduce the inappropriate use of ED services by Medicaid patients by incentives that encourage primary care providers in managed care organizations to increase access for their enrollees to extended office hours or next-day appointments for urgently needed, non-emergency care. Recently, the Obama administration decided to kill a proposed plan to use ‘secret shoppers’ to determine whether, in fact, enrollees can get such appointments when they need them, in the face of considerable opposition from these very medical-home advocates. In the ED, we constantly hear from Medicaid Managed Care enrollees who come to the ED because they could not get a timely appointment from their PCP or clinic, but anecdote is not the best evidence, and there is not a lot of recent research about timely access for Medicaid patients (I think because no one in government or health care policy really wants to know). Therefor, we must look to indirect evidence of this phenomenon.
Recently, I had the chance to review claims data from 138,129 Medicaid Managed Care (MCMC) enrollees and 107,125 Medicaid Fee for Service (MFFS) patients seen consecutively in about 65 EDs in 6 states states over the first 4 months of 2010. Using ED physician charges (all under the same fee schedule) as a surrogate for ‘acuity’, all of these claims were stratified into 20th percentiles, from highest charges to lowest, for the MCMC and FFS patients. If you think about things like ‘deferral of ED care’, the patients who might be the least likely to require emergency care would fall into the bottom 20th percentile of ED physician charges, the least ‘acute’ patients using the least amount of ED physician services. These 20th percentile groupings offered an interesting comparison between MCMC and MFFS.
Here is how the comparison looked:
Medicaid Managed Care: 41.55% of all ED visits for these MC enrollees were in the lowest 20th percentile of charges (representing 26.57% of total ED MD charges for all MCMC enrollees)
Medicaid Fee-for Service: 36.72% of all ED visits for these FFS enrollees were in the lowest 20th percentile of charges (representing 21.14% of total ED MD charges for all MFFS enrollees)
Some of this discrepancy may be accounted for by the fact that the average charge for the MCMC patients was slightly (8%) higher than the average charge for the MFFS patients, but at best what this data suggests is that MCMC plans and capitated medical groups do not provide any better access to enrollees for urgently needed, non-emergency office or clinic appointments than their counterparts providing services to Medicaid patients on a FFS plan. If this were not the case, the numbers would be very different. So much for incentives. I guess as long as these MCMC organizations and plans can continue to underpay ED providers for after-hours urgent care to under-served Medicaid enrollees and not worry about ‘adequate access’ oversight, this isn’t likely to change.